Kaplan and Kaplan Preference Model offers a Model of Designing Engaging Environments

Kaplan and Kaplan Preference Model
offers a model of designing engaging environments which are nourishing and foster creativity and ingenuity 

Environmental Psychology theory Kaplan and Kaplan’s preference model (1989) looks at four preference factors coherence, legibility, complexity, and mystery which are key to engaging, stimulating and creative environments. People, whether at home or workplace, thrive in environments that comply with the Kaplan and Kaplan model.

Kaplan and Kaplan Preference Model

Kaplan and Kaplan Preference Model

Complexity and fractality 
Complexity can be accomplished with rich, nourishing environments. Nature is complex. Fractals are complex. Our bodies are mostly fractal. Fractality is a measure of complexity. A fractal is a mathematical set that usually displays
self-similar patterns (Benoît Mandelbrot, 1975).  The concept of fractality extends beyond self-similarity and can include detailed patterns repeating themselves. Examples of fractal patterns can be seen in: cauliflowers, your DNA, Pollock’s paintings, snowflakes, roses, and some cities such as Prague which was designed on the pattern of a rose (see below – bottom right) and your lungs and waves.

Examples of fractals

Examples of fractals

Fractals

Fractals

Fractal vs non fractal

Fractal vs non fractal

Non fractal vs fractal

Less fractal vs fractal

Which house is more fractal and more engaging?

Which house is more fractal and more engaging?

For more info and examples read: Environmental Psychology for Design, Second Edition by Dak Kopec

Kaplan and Kaplan Preference Model offers a Model of Designing Engaging Environments
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